The 8TH.Food Packaging Forum (FPF) workshop “改善食品的化学品安全性:与科学研究的联系政策“2020年10月21日至23日在线进行。

In his talk,Stefan Merkelfrom the德国联邦风险评估研究所(BFR)讨论了recent projects pursued byBFR.在迁移到食品中迁移到食品中的化学品风险评估领域。One example concerned the migration of melamine (CAS 108-78-1) and formaldehyde (CAS 50-00-0) from ‘melaware’ (articles made from melamine-formadehyde resin) and ‘bambooware’ (articles made from melamine-formaldehyde resin filled with bamboo fibers). Specific migration limits (SML) given for melamine and formaldehyde in the regulation (EU) 10/2011 on food contact plastics are 15 mg/kg and 2.5 mg/kg food or food simulant, respectively. Migration of melamine was found to increase with each successive migration round, exceeding the SML after about 7-8 migrations. Migration from ‘bambooware’ was much higher, exceeding the SML from the beginning and showing similar behavior to further increase with each succeeding migration round. Migration of melamine and formaldehyde was also found to strongly increase after heating, for example in an experiment simulating the use of coffee in a mug made of ‘bambooware.’ BfR concluded that tableware based on melamine-formaldehyde resin “can be used to consume foodstuffs at room temperature,” but it should not be used in microwave ovens or to hold hot meals or beverages, because this material is “degraded and damaged by contact with hot liquids” and it is particularly “not suited for repeated usage in contact with hot liquid foodstuffs” (FPF报道)。

For many FCMs not yet having a dedicated EU-wide regulation, BfR has issued so-calledrecommendations可以从其网站自由下载。BFR的建议在38covers paper and board for food contact. Bisphenol A (BPA, CAS 80-05-7) is not included in this recommendation as a substance allowed to be used in food contact paper production. However, it could still appear in the food contact paper due to the use of recycled fibers, which are allowed to be used as raw materials for the production of food contact paper. Therefore, the Annex of Recommendation XXXVI indicates a maximum value for migration of BPA into food from paper/board FCMs. Until 2015, this value was 600 µg/kg food, but then was lowered to 240 µg/kg food and then to 50 µg/kg food.

Lisa Zimmermannfrom the Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany,presentedTH.e results of her recent work applying non-targeted chemical analysis andin vitrobioassays to investigate the chemical composition and toxicity of mixtures extractable from articles made of conventional plastics, bioplastics, and plant-based materials. In 2019, a mixture of substances extracted from bioplastics such as polylactic acid (PLA) was found to exert similar toxicity as that found in conventional plastics such as polyvinylchloride (PVC) and polyurethane (PUR) (FPF报道)。现在,一些连续高毒性被确认cts made of a wider variety of bioplastics, including PLA, bio-based polyethylene (bio-PE) and polyethylene terephthalate (bio-PET), PLA, polybutylene succinate (PBS), polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), and polybutylene adipate terephthalate (PBAT), as well as for cellulose-based and starch-based materials (FPF报道)。观察到的毒性作用包括基线毒性(频繁),氧化应激和雌激素(罕见),抗血管生成(频繁)。

Zimmerman得出结论认为“毒物学上,生物基/可生物降解材料并不比传统塑料更好”,并要求更具针对性考虑(Bio)塑料制品的化学毒性。然后,她讨论了在一些食品接触应用中取代了常规塑料的生物塑料使用增加的机会和挑战。作为一方于前进的方式,Zimmermann建议与化学品安全相关的考虑应该在比较不同FCA的安全性和可持续性的规定和框架中获得更多重量,例如生命周期分析。为了使化学安全的适当评估,可能需要降低食品接触中使用的化学品和聚合物的复杂性,并且应透明地传达FCA的化学成分。此外,除了一次评估一种物质,Zimmermann建议从最终FCA测试整个迁移。放置在不同类型的FCA上的复杂要求导致复杂的挑战。这使得“不太可能”的“单尺寸适合 - 所有解决方案”,而是需要差异化的方法,其中应开发和评估最可持续的产品,以分别为每个利基选择。

Andrew Turnerfrom the University of Plymouth, UK,talkedabout hazardous elements in plastic and glass articles for food contact and storage. According to Turner, four groups of plastic additives represent a particular concern with regard to human health, namely flame retardants, heat stabilizers, pigments, and plasticizers. Turner discussed studies demonstrating the likely presence of brominated flame retardants in FCAs made of black plastics, introduced there through contamination of recycling streams with waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) (FPF报道)。Two of the tested cocktail stirrers had such high concentration of bromine (pointing to the likely presence of brominated flame retardants) that they would not have been allowed to be used to make a laptop case according to the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) directive (Directive 2002/95/EC).

在由黑色塑料制成的产品中,还定期检测到毒性重金属,例如镉(CD,CD,CAS 7440-43-9)和铅(PB,CAS 7439-92-1),包括许多FCA。两种与食品联络塑料中的重金属相关的条例包括指令94/62 / EC,其调节包装和包装废物中的CD,Pb,Cr(VI)和Hg,指令2002/72 / EC调节PB和Cr(VI))在FCAS中。经常检测到高浓度Br,Cd和Pb的黑色塑料通常由聚乙烯(PE),聚丙烯(PP),聚苯乙烯(PS)和丙烯腈 - 丁二烯 - 苯乙烯(ABS)塑料聚合物制成。相反,在由聚对苯二甲酸乙二醇酯(PET)制成的黑色塑料中从未检测到这些元素。宠物仅在电子设备中使用,这可能是这种材料逃脱这种“毒性循环”的原因。

He then turned to discussing Cd and Pb content in outside enamels brought on decorated glassware. Very high concentrations of these metals measured in some of the products are likely due to the use of metal-containing pigments, such as heat resistant pigment containing Cd or Pb-containing overglaze. Turner explained that the use of these pigments as glass decorations does not make the product non-compliant, because they are considered as part of the glass, and, divided by the overall weight of a bottle, the levels appear to be much lower. However, he questioned whether external decoration really should be considered as part of the glass and suggested to address the question whether it would “come-off” from a product. Indeed, Turner then showed a product where exterior decoration became detached, likely because the Cd-containing pigment was unglazed, and concluded that such products both pose a “significant direct human health risk” and add to the contamination of glass cullet. According to Turner, FCM safety issues requiring immediate attention include “(i) export of hazardous plastics; (ii) recycling of materials into products serving a different function; (iii) components of articles that pose a hazard.” In a subsequent Q&A session, it was commented that products featuring external decorations which could be based on heavy metal-containing pigments constitute a relatively low proportion (1-2%) of all glass-made FCAs. Further, efforts are being made to eliminate or substitute the use of heavy metal-based pigments for external decoration of glass articles.

Read more

Stefan Merkel(2020年10月21日)。“德国BFR的FCM安全评估。(YouTube;pdf)

Lisa Zimmermann (October 21, 2020). “Recent analysis on the toxicities of bioplastics and plant-based materials.” (YouTube;pdf)

Andrew Turner (October 21, 2020). “Hazardous chemicals in plastic and glass articles for food contact and storage.” (YouTube;pdf)